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WCAG 2.0

Accessibility Status of Central Government Universities in India

We always believe that any learning should come from education and educational institutions. In India, if not more, at least we are talking about digital accessibility since 2008 (I’m saying it as that is the year when Government of India has published Guidelines for Indian Government Websites). There are about 46 universities run by Central Government of India. We have conducted a quick accessibility audit of websites of all these central universities with two parameters in mind:

  • Total number of accessibility violations
  • Number of color contrast issues

We have not conducted a full audit of each home page; but have done a quick audit using automated testing tool aXe by Deque Systems Inc.

There is only “Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University meets the closest requirement of WCAG 2.0 AA compliance.

There found one website that has 300 WCAG 2.0 violations just on the home page. Below is a quick snapshot of how these websites are doing from WCAG 2.0 prospective.

There found one website that hos more than 200 color contrast issues. Below is a snapshot of how these portals are doing from color contrast prospective. Many sites have more color contrast issues than other violations; this clearly indicates importance of why accessibility needs to be considered at the design stage itself.

Below table shows list of WCAG 2.0 violations and number of color contrast issues against each website.

University Name No. of WCAG 2.0 issues Color Contrast issues
Rajiv Gandhi University, Arunachal Pradesh 103 84
Assam University, Assam 33 15
Tezpur University, Assam 16 0
Central University of South Bihar 16 3
Mahatma Gandhi Central University, Bihar 34 1
Nalanda University, Bihar 9 4
Guru Ghasidas University 300 1
Indira Gandhi National Open University 29 17
Jamia Milia Islamia 128 56
Jawaharlal Nehru University 28 2
South Asian University, Delhi 9 4
University of Delhi 8 7
Central University of Gujarat 127 6
Central University of Haryana 21 6
Central University of Himachal Pradesh 36 9
Central University of Jammu 229 218
Central University of Kashmir 128 17
Central University of Jharkhand 49 0
Central University of Karnataka 28 25
Central University of Kerala 24 14
Dr. Hari Singh Gaur University 93 6
Indira Gandhi National Tribal University 124 17
Mahatma Gandhi Antarrashtriya Hindi VishwaVidyalaya,Wardha 83 2
Central Agricultural University 19 15
Manipur University 13 0
North Eastern Hill University 27 10
Mizoram University 12 2
Nagaland University 18 0
Central University of Orissa 57 12
Pondicherry University 18 6
Central University of Punjab 83 14
Central University of Rajasthan 26 0
Sikkim University 31 4
Central University of Tamil Nadu 41 7
Indian Maritime University 27 0
English and Foreign Languages University 54 2
Maulana Azad National Urdu University 35 0
Univeristy of Hyderabad 20 10
Tripura University 40 19
Aligarh Muslim University 43 7
University of Allahabad 21 9
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University 48 11
Banaras Hindu University 66 5
The Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University 51 3

If we can get these institutions educated on accessibility and make these websites accessible would lead journey of inclusion to a long way. Let’s spread the word!

Creating Accessible Forms


This has been presented as 4th Learning Session to the members and guests of W3C Accessibility in India Community Group. Objective of these learning sessions is to raise awareness about accessibility and enhance network of accessibility professionals.


Below are the slides presented in the session:

[slideshare id=57260792&doc=19a44141-2932-4348-a1b4-c07c1205eba1-160120053335]

Text Transcript

Hello everyone, Thank you for joining us. In this session, we will be talking about Creating Accessible forms. Agenda of this session will be:


  1. About Deque and Me
  2. Setting the Context – Forms
  3. Remembering Basics
    1. Associated Labels
    2. Group Level Form Controls
    3. Labels and Instructions
  4. Making Dynamic and Complex Forms accessible
  5. Error handling and prevention
  6. WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria related to forms
  7. Resources
  8. Questions

About Deque

Deque is a global leader in the area of Accessibility serving Government, Corporate and other organizations for 15+ years. Digital Accessibility is both our mission and vision.

About Me

Am an accessibility evangelist with a decade+ of experience. Started my accessibility journey at BarrierBreak, then worked at several organizations including Yahoo!, PayPal, HCL Technologies and currently works at Deque. Accessibility is not just my profession but something very close to my heart. My hobbies include networking, swimming, playing Chess and Carrom. Currently I live in Hyderabad with my wife Hema and our cute daughter Khushi Varshini.

Setting the context – Forms

Today digital forms are playing a key role in people lives. They are everywhere from school admission to avail retirement benefits. It’s encouraging to see even Government is promoting use of digital services. Moving to digital would be an added benefit to people with disabilities and make them less dependent. They are also safe and secure way to store and easy to retrieve.

Basics – Associated Labels

It’s essential that all form controls are programmatically associated with their respective labels. This can be achieved by using <for> and <id> attributes, <aria-label> or <title> attribute.

View Form Label example

References for Associated Labels:

  1. W3C – WAI’s tutorial on Form labels
  2. Technique H44: Using Label elements to associate text labels with form controls
  3. Technique G131: Providing Descriptive Labels

Basics: Group level form controls

When user has to select options that are provided in the form of radio buttons, checkboxes or when there are a group of form controls such as Date of birth, phone number; those controls usually have a common label. In such a situation, it’s essential to ensure that:

  1. All form controls are programmatically associated with their labels
  2. All form controls are programmatically associated with their common label

View Radio button example

References for Group level form controls

  1. Technique H71: Providing a description for groups of form controls using fieldset and legend elements

Basics: Labels and instructions

It’s recommended that forms labels are visible. Now-a-days, placeholder text is used as form label; but this is not a good practice unless there is a mechanism to make label still visible even when user has inserted data into input field. Otherwise, it would be difficult for several users including those with cognitive disabilities to review the information before submitting.

It’s also important to provide instructions about required fields, if input field accepts data only in specific format or any other information that user should know while filling out the form.

Resources for Labels and instructions

  1. Understanding SC 3.3.2: Labels and Instructions

Dealing with Dynamic and Complex Forms

I’m going to demonstrate you all 3 examples:

  1. Creating Accessible Date Picker where the date picker is completely accessible using keyboard and not with mouse alone, all dates have descriptive labels for user to select
  2. Now-a-days, e-Commerce is trending and often the challenge is to deal with Shopping cart. Shopping carts usually gets updated dynamically as user makes selection of a product. So it’s essential that user gets the updated information about pricing, quantity added, total number of products in the cart etc., So let’s look at an Example of Accessible Shopping Cart <aria-live> tribute plays a key role to make such applications accessible.
  3. Another interesting widget would be Character count. We see several applications will have <texture> input field that allows only a limited number of characters can be inserted. In this case, user should be informed about permitted number of characters along with the <label> and alert user when nearing to end of allowed number of characters. It’ would be annoying to to expose character count right from first character. View Example of an Accessible Character Counter

Error handling and prevention

It’s important that there is a mechanism to identify mistakes that user has made on form submission. It’s also important error messages are conveyed via multiple clues including through text and styling input fields that requires correction.

It’s essential to enable users to prefer from making mistakes. To address this, user should be provided helpful information along with form label for potential fields that require user to input in specific format. For instance, Date of birth field accepts in a specific format or in a user registration form, password field may have some conditions. These need to be informed to user.

Resources for Error handling and prevention

  1. Understanding SC 3.3.1: Error identification
  2. Understanding SC 3.3.6 – Error prevention

WCAG 2.0 Success Criteria that are related to Forms

  1. 1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, Structure and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text (Level A)
    1. Associate labels either explicitly or implicitly
    2. Ensure that group related form controls are marked up using <fieldset> and <legend>
  2. 2.4.6 Headings and Labels: To describe topic / purpose (Level AA)
    1. Provide descriptive labels
    2. Provide visible labels
  3. 3.3.2 Labels or instructions: Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input (Level A)
    1. Identifying required field
    2. Error identification
    3. Providing instructions
  4. 4.1.2 Name, Role and Value: For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A)


I have put together some great resources including Code Examples from our Deque University, a nice tutorial from W3C, a couple of articles from WebAIM and my good friend Rakesh.

View Resources

Thanks everyone for attending and looking forward to see web more inclusive. Do feel free to reach out to me for any questions / comments.