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Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 is now official

On 5th June, 2018 Web Accessibilty Initiative of World Wide Web Consortium has announced that Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 has become official recommendation as standard. There has been tremendous efforts by Accessibility Guidelines Working Group which includes task forces for Cognitive, Low Vision and Mobile users. This is an evolution of W3C’s accessibility guidance, including expansion of mobile, low vision, and cognitive and learning provisions. It maintains W3C’s accessibility guidance, while maintaining W3C’s standard of implementable, technology neutral, objectively testable and universally applicable accessibility guidance.

New Support in WCAG 2.1

For users of mobile devices, WCAG 2.1 provides updated guidance including support for user interactions using touch, handling more complex gestures, and for avoiding unintended activation of an interface. For users with low vision, WCAG 2.1 extends contrast requirements to graphics, and introduces new requirements for text and layout customization to support better visual perception of web content and controls. For users with cognitive, language, and learning disabilities, WCAG 2.1 improvements include a requirement to provide information about the specific purpose of input controls, as well as additional requirements to support timeouts due to inactivity. This can help many users better understand web content and how to successfully interact with it.

As with WCAG 2.0, following these guidelines will continue to make content more accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities, including blindness and low vision, deafness and hearing loss, limited movement, speech disabilities, photosensitivity, and learning disabilities and cognitive limitations. Following these guidelines can also make websites more usable for all users.

Read the complete blog post by Andrew and Micheal on W3C Blog

Here are list of New Success Criterions in WCAG 2.1

Guideline 1.3 Adaptable

Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.3.4 Orientation (Level AA)

Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential.

Comic with cerebral palsy who uses a wheelchair:

  • Problem:I can’t rotate my tablet — it’s attached to my wheelchair.
  • Works well:The application works whether I attach my tablet horizontally or vertically.

Understanding Orientation

1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose (AA)

The purpose of each input field collecting information about the user can be programmatically determined when:

Supermarket assistant with dyslexia and dyscalculia:

  • Problem:My address is so complicated. There’s lots of numbers and long words. It’s hard to type it all without making mistakes.
  • Works well:I love websites that can automatically fill it all in for me. Then I don’t have to work so hard to get the numbers and spelling right.
    Note: This works because the fields use autocomplete.

Understanding Identify Input Purpose

1.3.6 Identify Purpose (AAA)

In content implemented using markup languages, the purpose of User Interface Components, icons, and regionscan be programmatically determined.

Gamer with language processing disability:

  • Problem:I have software that changes the words in the navigation into symbols. It doesn’t work at all with some websites.
  • Works well:It works pretty good with some websites.

Understanding Identify Purpose

Guideline 1.4 Distinguishable

Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.10 Reflow (AA)

Content can be presented without loss of information or functionality, and without requiring scrolling in two dimensions for:

  • Vertical scrolling content at a width equivalent to 320 CSS pixels;
  • Horizontal scrolling content at a height equivalent to 256 CSS pixels;

Except for parts of the content which require two-dimensional layout for usage or meaning.

Parent with low vision – 20/400:

  • Problem:It’s nearly impossible to read text if I have to scroll right and left to read each line. It’s disorienting and I lose my place. It makes it hard to understand what I’m reading.
  • Works well:I increase the text size 400% and it reflowed within the width of the window. I can read it easily without scrolling back and forth.

Understanding Reflow

1.4.11 Non-Text Contrast (AA)

The visual presentation of the following have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against adjacent color(s):

User Interface Components
Visual information used to indicate states and boundaries of user interface components, except for inactive components or where the appearance of the component is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author;
Graphical Objects
Parts of graphics required to understand the content, except when a particular presentation of graphics is essential to the information being conveyed.

Retiree with low contrast sensitivity:

  • Problem:I couldn’t use the “Order Form” — there were no text boxes. After a long call with customer service, I learned there were text box borders that were too light for me to see.
  • Works well:It’s easy for me to see all the icons and buttons and everything — even in the sunlight.

Understanding Non-text Contrast

1.4.12 Text Spacing (AA)

In content implemented using markup languages that support the following text style properties, no loss of content or functionality occurs by setting all of the following and by changing no other style property:

  • Line height (line spacing) to at least 1.5 times the font size;
  • Spacing following paragraphs to at least 2 times the font size;
  • Letter spacing (tracking) to at least 0.12 times the font size;
  • Word spacing to at least 0.16 times the font size.

Exception: Human languages and scripts that do not make use of one or more of these text style properties in written text can conform using only the properties that exist for that combination of language and script.

Student with dyslexia:
and Retiree with low vision:

  • Problem:Most text is hard to read. It’s so cluttered I can’t keep my focus. Just increasing the space between lines makes all the difference. When I’m really tired, I also increase the space between words.
  • Works well:OK, I know I’m a bit of a geek, but I’ve perfected a user style sheet to make text spacing just right for me. It’s a relief when websites work with my CSS.

Understanding Text Spacing

1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus (AA)

Where receiving and then removing pointer hover or keyboard focus triggers additional content to become visible and then hidden, the following are true:

Dismissable
mechanism is available to dismiss the additional content without moving pointer hover or keyboard focus, unless the additional content communicates an input error or does not obscure or replace other content;
Hoverable
If pointer hover can trigger the additional content, then the pointer can be moved over the additional content without the additional content disappearing;
Persistent
The additional content remains visible until the hover or focus trigger is removed, the user dismisses it, or its information is no longer valid.

Exception: The visual presentation of the additional content is controlled by the user agent and is not modified by the author.

Teacher with low vision who uses screen magnification software:

  • Problem:I was moving my mouse around to track what I was looking at on a web page. It helps me keep focused. Then -boom- this little box popped up. It covered what I was trying to read and I couldn’t get it to go away.
  • Works well:I hovered over a word and a box popped up with the definition, but it was mostly off the screen with my magnification. I moved my mouse pointer to the definition box and scrolled the magnified area over to the definition box and it stayed popped up so I could read it.

Understanding Content on Hover or Focus

Guideline 2.1 Keyboard Accessible

Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts (A)

If a keyboard shortcut is implemented in content using only letter (including upper- and lower-case letters), punctuation, number, or symbol characters, then at least one of the following is true:

Turn off
mechanism is available to turn the shortcut off;
Remap
A mechanism is available to remap the shortcut to use one or more non-printable keyboard characters (e.g. Ctrl, Alt, etc).
Active only on focus
The keyboard shortcut for a user interface component is only active when that component has focus.

Reporter with repetitive stress injury who uses voice recognition software:

  • Problem:When I was using my mail app with voice commands, it kept deleting the messages instead of opening them.
    Note: There was a shortcut key for delete that was triggered by something he was saying, and no way to turn off the shortcut keys.
  • Works well:In my spreadsheet application, there’s a setting to turn off or modify character key shortcuts.

Understanding Character Key Shortcuts

Guideline 2.2 Enough Time

Provide users enough time to read and use content.

2.2.6 Timeouts (AAA)

Users are warned of the duration of any user inactivity that could cause data loss, unless the data is preserved for more than 20 hours when the user does not take any actions.

School playground aide with cognitive disabilities:

  • Problem:I was selecting my Employee Benefits and was comparing the different plans. When I went back to select the Health Plan, it had timed out and lost all the information I had already entered.
  • Works well:When I started the Employee Benefits app, it told me how many minutes I had to complete the forms.

Understanding Timeouts

Guideline 2.3 Seizures and Physical Reactions

Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures or physical reactions.

2.3.3 Animation from Interactions (AAA)

Motion animation triggered by interaction can be disabled, unless the animation is essential to the functionality or the information being conveyed.

Artist with vestibular disorder:

  • Problem:In the online tax app, as I move my mouse around or tab to different fields, this little bubble with the current balance follows me around the screen. Makes me dizzy and nauseous.
  • Works well:I was so glad there was an option to turn off animations.

Understanding Animation from Interactions

Guideline 2.5 Input Modalities

Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard.

2.5.1 Pointer Gestures (A)

All functionality that uses multipoint or path-based gestures for operation can be operated with a single pointerwithout a path-based gesture, unless a multipoint or path-based gesture is essential.

Comic with cerebral palsy who has limited movement in fingers:

  • Problem:I can’t move my fingers like that. I need another way to zoom in the map.
  • Works well:Good thing there are buttons to zoom in and out.

Understanding Pointer Gestures

2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation (A)

For functionality that can be operated using a single pointer, at least one of the following is true:

No Down-Event
The down-event of the pointer is not used to execute any part of the function;
Abort or Undo
Completion of the function is on the up-event, and a mechanism is available to abort the function before completion or to undo the function after completion;
Up Reversal
The up-event reverses any outcome of the preceding down-event;
Essential
Completing the function on the down-event is essential.

Politician with motor disabilities and low vision:

  • Problem:I went to hit the “Mute” button and accidentally touched the “End Call” button instead. It hung up immediately.
  • Works well:In another web conferencing application, if I accidentally touch the “End Call” button, I can just slide my finger off the “End Call” button and it won’t end the call.

Understanding Pointer Cancellation

2.5.3 Label in Name (A)

For user interface components with labels that include text or images of text, the name contains the text that is presented visually.

Reporter with repetitive stress injury who uses voice recognition software:

  • Problem:It understood most of my voice commands until I got to the Send button. I kept saying ‘Send’ and it didn’t work.
    Note: It was visually labelled ‘send’ but the ‘name’ in the code was ‘submit’. It would have worked if the ‘name’ started with ‘send’.

Understanding Label in Name

2.5.4 Motion Actuation (A)

Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components and responding to the motion can be disabled to prevent accidental actuation, except when:

Supported Interface
The motion is used to operate functionality through an accessibility supported interface;
Essential
The motion is essential for the function and doing so would invalidate the activity.

Comic with cerebral palsy who uses a wheelchair:

  • Problem:I can’t shake my phone; it’s connected to my wheelchair. So there needs to be another way to activate that feature, like a button.
  • Problem:I have tremors, so I need to turn off motion activation — and then be able to do stuff without motion actuation.
  • Works well:My friend has this cool application that looks like a physical spin lock. She rotates the phone to turn to the combination. I can use the same application by typing the numbers directly.

Understanding Motion Actuation

2.5.5 Target Size (AAA)

The size of the target for pointer inputs is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels except when:

Equivalent
The target is available through an equivalent link or control on the same page that is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels;
Inline
The target is in a sentence or block of text;
User Agent Control
The size of the target is determined by the user agent and is not modified by the author;
Essential
A particular presentation of the target is essential to the information being conveyed.

Retiree with hand tremor (and big fingers):

  • Problem:The buttons are so small, I hit “Cancel” when going for “Submit”. Then I have to start all over again.
  • Works well:This website buttons are big enough that I don’t hit the wrong button even when I’m riding on the bumpy bus.

Understanding Target Size

2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms (AAA)

Web content does not restrict use of input modalities available on a platform except where the restriction is essential, required to ensure the security of the content, or required to respect user settings.

Reporter with repetitive stress injury who uses voice recognition software:

  • Problem:When my RSI acts up, I switch back and forth a lot between keyboard, mouse, stylus, voice. This application doesn’t let me use the stylus when I have a keyboard plugged in.

Understanding Concurrent Input Mechanisms

Guideline 4.1 Compatible

Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.

4.1.3 Status Messages (AA)

In content implemented using markup languages, status messages can be programmatically determined through role or properties such that they can be presented to the user by assistive technologies without receiving focus.

Accountant who is blind and uses a screen reader:

  • Problem:I selected a class for the conference, but I can’t tell if it got added to my schedule.
  • Works well:When I add a meeting to my calendar, I hear a confirmation.

Understanding Status Messages

Above details are reproduced from What’s new in WCAG 2.1 on WAI Website.

ServeOM Inclusion will be happy to assist community in understanding WCAG 2.1, testing products against WCAG 2.1. Do contact us to have a conversation.

Gratitude to everyone involved in building these standards.

New in Android Accessibility

I was watching What’s new in Android Accessibility? and here is my quick notes. It’s great to see our good friend Victor Tsaran on the stage of Google I/O.

Sound Amplifier – to help increase audio quality on your android and avoid sound disturbances around the user. The way i was explained was amazing that this feature could reduce noise from around the user and help user focus on the conversation.

Accessibility menu – take screenshot, lock screen, power off etc., Easy access to some commonly used features.

Lookout – for blind and low vision – helpful in situations where they need help. Finding chair, etc., Appears this app is similar to Microsoft Seeing AI, but a few tasks may be done without internet access. Looking forward for this app to be available in India.

Select to Speak – Now comes OCR capabilities for camera. Just place camera around a paper and it reads aloud.

Voice Access – use android with voice.

Android Accessibility Suite – combination of various accessibiolity services

I would like to congratulate Winner of Google play award – Be My Eyes, Sesame-enable.com and Audiogamehub.com

There has been great progress for Android over a few years. Way to go!

WCAG 2.1 is now a proposed recommendation

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 has become a proposed recommendation a while ago. This is possibly a last step before a standard becomes W3C recommendation. In short, this process is to confirm if required corrections are made. Here is what it means in the words of W3C.

7.6.4 Call for Review of Proposed Corrections

Document maturity level: A Recommendation, plus a list of proposed corrections. The Working Group should also include a detailed description of how the Working Group plans to change the text of the Recommendation for each proposed correction.

Announcement: The Working Group must announce the Call for Review to other W3C groups, the public, and the Advisory Committee. This is not a formal Advisory Committee review. However, the announcement must clearly indicate that this is a proposal to make normative corrections to the Recommendation and must:

  1. specify the deadline for review comments;
  2. identify known dependencies and solicit review from all dependent Working Groups;
  3. solicit public review.

Purpose: At this step, W3C seeks confirmation of proposed corrections to a Recommendation.

Entrance criteria: The Working Group calls for review when, with respect to changes to the document, the group has fulfilled the same entrance criteria as for a Call for Review of a Proposed Recommendation.

Duration of the review: The announcement begins a review period that must last at least four weeks.

Ongoing work: Same as for a Proposed Edited Recommendation.

If there are no formal objections to the proposed corrections, W3C considers them normative. The Working Group must report formal objections to the Director, who assesses whether there is sufficient consensus to declare the proposed corrections to be normative.

So this should be final and final chance to have any say and contribute to WCAG 2.1. As I see it, there have been a lot of great efforts and WCAG 2.1 looks awesome. Why not we just start implementing it?

Gratitude to all those who have closely involved in putting these standards together.

Global Accessibility Awareness Day: beyond digital accessibility

It’s true that most of the events being planned to observe Global Accessibility Awareness Day are focused on digital accessibility. This is not because someone doesn’t like about other aspects. It is happening just due to most people who are involved or hosting GAAD are from technology background. There is no restriction to observe GAAD only in the area of digital space.

Here are a few ideas as to how GAAD can be observed in many other ways:

  1. Get your neighbours together and do analysis to see if your apartment / house / township is usable and accessible to people with disabilities and elderly. Is your elevator accessible to users with blindness? Is your common areas accessible to users with wheelchair? If you invite a guest with disability, can they stay with comfort at your house? Would you be able to help them using toilet?
  2. Go to nearby schools and have a conversation around how education is important and so is true for people with disabilities too. Most schools are reluctant to admit children with disabilities. Help them understand how technologies are evolved and come as aid to people with disabilities to learn science, maths, etc.,
  3. Visit nearby hospitals and do a talk about advancement life and technology and how they should advice when something cannot be cured with medical efforts.
  4. Talk to disability organizations around you and if needed, mentor them to understand real means of rehabilitation. I have seen scenarios where people at mid-age develops disability, they were asked to enrol for courses like chair caning, candle making etc., instead working towards putting them back into the area where client have worked for a long time. This needs to be changed.
  5. Talk to restaurants around you and help them to make their hotels and services accessible.

There would be many more ideas that one can look at.

Let’s think through!

Using WAVE – an Accessibility Evaluation tool by WebAIM – #GAADSeries

This is a guest post by Kameshwari Devi Kiran Kumar

This article briefly explanes how to use the WAVE tool to test accessibility for a website. There are primarily two methods of using the tool:

  1. Entering the URL of the website you would like to test into the ‘Webpage address’ textbox given for the purpose at

https://wave.webaim.org/

and hitting the ‘Wave’ button to see the results.

  1. Downloading the extension from the ‘Webaim’ site from the below URLs:

Chrome: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/wave-evaluation-tool/jbbplnpkjmmeebjpijfedlgcdilocofh

Firefox: https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/wave-accessibility-tool/

 

Steps to download and use the tool:

  1. Go to the above URLs.
  2. Activate the ‘add to Chrome’ or ‘Add to Firefox’ button depending on the browser you are working with.
  3. Activate the ‘add to extensions’ button.
  4. Once the extension is added to Chrome / Firefox, open the webpage you would like to test and activate the ‘Wave’ button next to the browser address bar or press ‘Control+Shift+U(Command+Shift+U in case of MAC)’ to fetch the report.

Wave report and features:

The tool runs an accessibility check and displays icons representing the search results.

  1. The default results page shows you a summary in the sidebar. It lists errors (red icons), alerts (yellow icons), features (green icons), structural elements

(blue icons), HTML5 and ARIA elements (lavender icons), and contrast errors (which don’t show up as icons).

  1. Above the summary results are buttons to let you look at the page with no styles, or to view only the contrast errors.
  2. To the left of the summary panel, you can opt to see details, documentation,

or an outline of the page structure. On the right, where your web site is pictured, you can click on any icon to get a brief explanation and a link to more information.

  1. You can look at the code for the icons mention by clicking the ‘code’ tab at the bottom. The code panel shows you the code related to any icon you click on the page of WAVE tool results

 

WCAG 2.1 is now a candid recommendation

Accessibility Guidelines Working Group of W3C has published WCAG 2.1 as a candid recommendation (CR). Purpose of CR is to ensure that standard can be implemented. Results of this exercise will be made available on WCAG 2.1 Implementation report once it’s completed. Working group plans to complete this by June 2018.

What’s new in WCAG 2.1

Addresses more accessibility requirements of people with cognitive disabilities, people with low vision and improves accessibility of mobile. Features of WCAG 2.1 are:

WCAG 2.1 extends WCAG 2.0 by adding new success criteria, definitions to support them, guidelines to organize the additions, and a couple of additions to the conformance section. This additive approach helps to make it clear that sites which conform to WCAG 2.1 also conform to WCAG 2.0, thereby meeting conformance obligations that are specific to WCAG 2.0. The Accessibility Guidelines Working Group recommends that sites adopt WCAG 2.1 as their new conformance target, even if formal obligations mention WCAG 2.0, to provide improved accessibility and to anticipate future policy changes.

The following Success Criteria are new in WCAG 2.1:

Many of these success criteria reference new terms that have also been added to the glossary and form part of the normative requirements of the success criteria.

In the Conformance section, a third note about page variants has been added to Full Pages, and an option for machine-readable metadata added to Optional Components of a Conformance Claim.

What we should do

Apply WCAG 2.1 to our day-to-day work and report when a success criterion cannot be implemented. Do file an issue on Github or write to Chairs of Accessibility Guidelines Working Group.

Let’s do some exiting work! Sincere thanks to everyone involved in building accessibility standards.

Accessibility of Payments

This is a talk being presented at 50p Conference on 9th February 2018.

Slides

Below are the slides and full text will be made available soon.

Video

Full Text

Hello Everyone, My name is Srinivasu, I lead accessibility at Informatica. I’m also Founder of ServeOM Inclusion – a platform to raise awareness about accessibility. I love helping companies to set up accessibility practices. As part of this, I help a few companies such as Prakat Solutions, Amnet Systems etc., Not really a very active contributor but I follow developments of new accessibility standards being part of Accessibility Guidelines Working Group. I’m a certified Web Accessibility Specialist by International Association of Accessibility Professionals and associated with IAAP as an individual member.

In this session, we will be talking about currency, wallets, cards, POS machines, electronic transactions and accessibility for all of these.

Year in Review 2017

It has been a transforming, exciting and a fantastic year! Highlights of Accessibility developments in 2017 across the world.

In addition, we have added a few more sections such as Tutorials, Videos, Helpdesk, Knowledge base and made our social channels including Facebook and Twitter.

In 2018, we are planning to roll-out a few video series and if possible a few roadshows on raising awareness about accessibility.

Should you have an idea that we should do in 2018 and would want to join hands with us, please let me know.

We wish you a very happy & prosperous 2018.

Best,
Srinivasu

Updated Web Accessibility Checklist – Operable

This is 2 of 4 in our series to put together an updated web accessibility checklist. As mentioned in our earlier post Updated Web Accessibility Checklist – Perceivable, this post may get updated once Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 becomes candid recommendation. (Reminder: last working draft is out; have your say soon!).

In this post, we will discuss what to check for operability of the web.

Ensure that content doesn’t flashes more than three times in one second or below the general and red flash thresholds

Level WCAG 2.1 Success Criterion What to check for?
A 2.1.1 Keyboard Ensure that functionality is operable using keyboard; including but not limited to input fields, links, buttons, menus, controls, etc.,
A 2.1.2 No keyboard trap Ensure that there is no keyboard trap. If users gets focused on an element using keyboard, they should be able to move out of the same component with the keyboard interface.
A 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable Ensure that user is alerted about session time-out and there is a mechanism to extend the session time. except where session time-out is essential such as for a test etc., In such a case, user should be notified and alerted.
A 2.2.2 Pause, stop, hide For blinking and moving content that starts automatically and plays for more than 5 seconds, provide a mechanism for user to pause, stop or hide. For auto-update of content, allow user to pause, stop, hide or change frequency of update.
A 2.2.6 Accessible Authentication Ensure that authentication process itself is accessible. This is a new SC in WCAG 2.1 – more interpretations will be available soon
AA 2.2.7 Interruptions (Minimum) Ensure there is an easy mechanism is available to postpone or suppress interruptions. Unless they are initiated by the user. This is also a new SC in WCAG 2.1
A 2.3.1 Three flashes or below thresholds
A 2.4.1 Bypass blocks Use any of the following methods to help users (specially keyboard only and screen reader) to bypass repeated blocks of content such as navigation.

  • Provide Skip to main content link. This needs to be the first link on the page. This can be visible or made visible on focus
  • Use appropriate heading structure using <heading> mark-up
  • Use ARIA landmark roles
A 2.4.2 Page titled Ensure every page has a descriptive and unique title. This should describe purpose or topic of the page
A 2.4.3 Focus order
  • Ensure tab order is meaningful for focusable elements
  • When activating an element opens a modal, ensure that keyboard focus is placed on the modal
  • When user is navigating within a modal, ensure that focus does not shift away from the modal until user closes modal
  • When user closes modal, ensure focus returns to the triggered element
A 2.4.4 Link Purpose Ensure that context of link is available with link text alone. Avoid use of link text like Read more, click here etc., if used, ensure to provide descriptive information using techniques like <aria-describedby> or using <off-screen> text.
AA 2.4.5 Multiple ways Ensure that there are more than one way to find content on the website. Some of the techniques could be use of Site search, Site map etc.,
AA 2.4.6 Headings & Labels
  • Ensure that all sections or topics have headings using <heading> attribute. This is helpful even when a form has multiple sections
  • Ensure input fields have visible labels. Placeholders are not a great way to do unless a mechanism is implemented in a way that labels are always visible even after entering data into input field. Exception is short and usual forms such as Search form, login form.
AA 2.4.7 Focus visible Ensure focus indicator is visible on all focusable elements. Do not override focus indicator using <outline:none>. If you do not like browser’s native focus indicator, be sure to code a customer focus indicator such as using <outline:dotted>
A 2.4.11 Character key shortcuts If there is a key shortcut that require use of multiple key combinations, provide a mechanism to either turn off or map with another key combination of user’s convenience. This is a new SC
A 2.4.12 Label in name When user interface component has additional text with label, that text should be presented with the accessible name.

In WCAG 2.1, Sections 2.5 Pointer accessible and 2.6 Additional sensor input are newly introduced and we will do these sections as a seperate interpretation. Stay tuned.

Tips to make your website more accessible

This is a guest post by Jackie Edwards.

Tips for accessibility

All websites need to cater to all of their users, including those with disabilities, but sadly many websites do not. For instance, in India all government websites are required to follow guidelines that ensure that the websites are accessible to everyone, but a survey of over 1,000 websites found that less than 1% of the websites actually meet the requirements.

This shows that there is an issue with how accessible websites are in India – and the issue is preventing millions of disabled people in India from having a simple online experience. Thankfully it is easier than you may think to improve website accessibility.

Here are four tips to make your website more accessible.

Use periods when you are abbreviating

There are over 10 million people in India with a visual impairment disability, and many of them use screen readers to read out text on websites. However, this can cause problems if you don’t put periods in the right place as the screen reader won’t read the text properly; for instance, if you write FBI instead of F.B.I the text will be read out as “fbi”.

Use subtitles and sign language interpreters

If your website includes videos, you should add sign language interpreters or subtitles to improve website accessibility. After all, there is an estimated deaf population of between 1.8 million and 7 million people in India, so if you don’t include subtitles you could exclude a significant chunk of your audience.

Label images

You should also add labels to your images to make it easier for the visually impaired to use your website. Many people who are visually impaired use assistive technology to help them decipher websites, but this can be difficult if you don’t include labels on your images as the technology can’t ‘read’ the image. If you provide a label describing the image the technology will be able to read that to the user, making it possible for them to enjoy the multimedia aspects of your website as well as the text.

Be aware of your audience

You also need to be aware of your audience if you want to make a more accessible website. There are a range of disabilities, from hearing impairments to cognitive impairments, and it is important to address each issue so that you can provide a useful service.

There is certainly pressure in India for ‘digital India’ to grow and progress, but there are still thousands of Indian websites that are not accessible for people with disabilities. Don’t get left behind – join the movement to make your website more accessible and progressive.